Cy Twombly’s diverse practice included painting, sculpture, and printmaking. Closely associated with the Post-Abstract Expressionist movement, Twombly is also widely known for his large-scale calligraphic works, which resemble scribbles on monochromatic backgrounds. These works blurred the line between painting and drawing and established Twombly as a modern master. After serving as a cryptographer in the US army, Twombly studied at the school of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1948–9, the Art Students’ League, New York, 1950–1, and Black Mountain College, Asheville, North Carolina, 1951–2. He received numerous awards, including the Japan Art Association’s Praemium Imperiale (1996) and the Golden Lion at the 49th Annual Venice Biennale (2010), and was made Chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur by the French Government in 2010.